Government of United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Oman Government - Introduction

The Omani government has been progressively modernized and liberalized since Sultan Qaboos came to power in 1970. As sultan, Qaboos is head of state, prime minister, and minister of foreign affairs, finance and defense. His cabinet, the Council of...

Education of Oman

Since the time of the accession of Sultan Qaboos in July 1970, providing education to both young people and adults has been given a top priority in the development of the Sultanate of Oman. The task of establishing an education system in those days...

Infrastructure of Oman

When the Sultan took power in 1970, his country was less developed than others in the Gulf. At that time there were only 5km of surfaced road in the entire country. There were only three primary schools and no secondary schools. One hospital was run...

Bahrain Government

Official name State of Bahrain (Dawlat al Bahrayn) Ruler Sheikh Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa. Government type Traditional monarchy Capital Manama Administrative divisions Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah...

Government organizations in Bahrain

Ministry of Foreign Affairs P.O. Box 547 Manama, Bahrain Telephone: (973) 262277 Fax: (973) 210575 Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs P.O. Box 450 Manama, Bahrain Telephone: (973) 531333 Fax: (973) 536343 Ministry of Development and Industry...

Government of Egypt

Government type Republic Administrative divisions 26 governorates : Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Gizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid...

Embassies and consulates in Egypt

Australia Egyptian Embassy 1 Darwin Avenue Yarralumla, Canberra, ACT 2600 Tel: (62) 273-4437/8 Egyptian Consulate -- Melbourne 124 Exhibition Street, 9th Floor Melbourne, Victoria 3000 Tel: (3) 654-8869 / 8634 Egyptian Consulate -- Sydney 335 New...

National Structure of Algeria

After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and...

Health and Social Welfare of Algeria

Socialism has given Algeria a comprehensive series of social welfare programmes for the impoverished, elderly and disabled members of society as well as benefits for labourers. Public housing and agricultural reform programmes have also been...

Foreign Policy of Algeria

Since independence Algeria has followed an anti-imperialist foreign policy and has supported liberation movements throughout the world. The country's leftist credentials, Arab-Islamic traditions and the western sophistication of many of its...

Military in Algeria

Armed forces: 121,7000 (65 conscripts). Other: 180,000 (National Security Forces, Republican Guards and Gendarmerie) Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, and National Gendarmerie The president of the...

Education of Algeria

According to government statistics, 85% of all children between the ages of 6 and 13 years are enrolled in schools, amounting to some 5.8 million students in elementary and middle schools and 839,000 high school students during the early 1990s....

Govt. of Comoros: Pre-independence

Until 1974, the Comoros were controlled by France. In that year, the majority of the population except on Mahoré (Mayotte) voted for independence, which was unilaterally declared in July 1975 although in 1976 the mainly French-speaking inhabitants...

Constitution of Comoros

According to the 1992 constitution, the head of state is a president elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years. There is in addition a legislative branch of government -- the Federal Assembly -- with 42 members elected for four-year...

Jordan Govt.: National

Jordan is a constitutional monarchy -- a constitution which was first proclaimed on January 8th 1952 and which has since been amended several times to meet the Kingdom's changing needs. Legislative powers lie with the Senate and the House of...

Jordan Govt.: Local

The country is divided into 8 governorates, each of which is subdivided into districts and counties. Local affairs are handled by city or village councils. There are 152 municipalities and 340 village councils. Administrative divisions 12...

Kuwait Govt.: Introduction

Kuwait was granted independence in 1961; in the same year it became a member of the Arab League, the Kuwait flag was hoisted on all governmental departments and institutions. In 1962 the Kuwaiti elected Constituent Assembly (50 members) convened to...

The State and System of the Kuwait Government

According to its constitution, Kuwait is a fully independent Arab state with a democratic system of rule and sovereignty is vested in the nation which represents the sources of all power. As has been provided for in the state constitution, the...

Kuwait Ministries

Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs General inquiries, tel.: 248 0000 Ministry of Commerce and Industry General inquiries, tel.: 246 3600 Ministry of Communications General inquiries, tel.: 2427033 Ministry of Defense General inquiries, tel.:...

Kuwait Governorates

For administrative purposes, Kuwait is divided into five governorates, each with its own governor. They are: Kuwait City, tel.: 2442400 Hawalli, tel.: 2627000 Jahra, tel.: 4577177 Farwaniya, tel.: 4882652 Ahmadi, tel.: 3989222

Kuwait Govt.: Municipality

The Municipality is responsible for all public services. These include town and road-planning, town cleaning and refuse collection, food and restaurant inspection. It also issues building and structure licences. General enquiries, tel: 244 9001

Kuwait Govt.: Welfare

Kuwait is a welfare state and heavily subsidizes many social needs. This sector of course was heavily damaged during the Iraqi occupation but strenuous efforts are underway to get the welfare system back to where it was on 1 August 1990. Following...

Lebanon Govt.: Regional

Lebanon is divided into five governorates, each administered by a governor who represents the central government. Both political and religious militias exercise considerable influence in the regions they control, often making it difficult for...

Lebanon Govt. - National

Lebanon is a republic with a president, a cabinet and unicameral National Assembly. Until 1990 an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact specified that the president had to be a Maronite Christian, the prime minister a Sunni Muslim, the...

Govt. of Libya: National

Libya's constitution, adopted in 1977, declares that the country is ruled by the people through a network of committees, and is an egalitarian, socialist state. The most important of these people's committees is the General People's Congress (GPC...

Govt. of Libya: Law

In 1979 the judicial power in Libya came under the authority of the People's Committee for Justice, which took over Libya's judicial power in civil, criminal and commercial matters. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and several associate...

Govt. of Mauritania: National

Mauritania is a republic. Its elected president is Maaouya Ould Taya. and its legislature consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. There are 12 political regions. The government of Mauritania has been civilian since Taya's election victory...

Govt. of Mauritania: Judiciary and Defence

The highest tribunal of Mauritania is the Supreme Court, which sits in Nouakchott. There are also several first-instance courts in larger urban centres. Islamic law plays a central role in the Mauritanian judicial system. By 1995, Mauritania had an...

Morocco Govt.: Introduction

After independence from France Morocco was established as a royal Kingdom with a hereditary monarchy. The King acts as head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. He is empowered to appoint the country's prime minister and cabinet and...

Morocco Govt.: Law

The Supreme Court is Morocco's highest judicial authority and presides in the capital. There are also 15 courts of appeal. Important local cases are heard by regional tribunals while smaller cases are handled by local tribunals. Labour disputes...

Provinces in Morocco

Morocco is divided into 16 administrative regions, which are in turn subdivided into 65 provinces and prefectures. The regions are administered by regional councils, whose members are either elected by communal councils or appointed by the minister...

Palestine Government

The government of the West Bank has up to now been a dual one: one part applying to Israeli citizens and the other to Palestinians. Israelis are under Israeli law and authority while Palestinians are ruled by the Civil Administration, a joint civil...

Qatar Govt.: Introduction

Qatar is an emirate ruled by Sheikh Hamad Khalifa Al-Thani, who is the head of state. According to the modified provisional constitution, the Emir decrees laws upon the recommendation of the Council of Ministers and after consultation with the...

Qatar Govt. Authority Within the State

The Emir The Emir is the Head of State. The present Emir is His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, son of the former Emir, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al-Thani. The Emir is authorised to issues decrees on the advice of the Council of...

Qatar Govt.: The Role of The State

The Constitution declares that Qatar is a sovereign and independent Arab state. Islam is the official religion of the country and Islamic law (sharia) is the principal source of legislation. Democracy is the basis of the government. The State...

Qatar Govt. : Civil Rights & Civil Liberties

The citizens of Qatar enjoy equal civil rights and responsibilities without discrimination on grounds of race, origin or religion. Laws cannot be applied retroactively and no sentence may be passed except under the force of an existing law. A...

Education in Qatar

The Ministry of Education was one of the first ministries to be established in Qatar; it was set up in 1956. Regular governmental education had been introduced in 1952 with the establishment of the first primary school. In 1956, the system of modern...

Health Services in Qatar

The health care provided in Qatar covers the entire country, giving free-of-charge inclusive services to citizens and other residents alike. This is carried out through a chain that starts with preliminary care services and ends with services...

Housing in Qatar

The State of Qatar attempts to create the optimum living conditions for its citizens. This is done through raising health, economic and social standards and providing suitable housing that is appropriate to the size, needs and social customs and...

Useful Qatar Government Addresses

The following addresses are all in Doha, the capital of Qatar. Ministry of Defence PO Box 37 Telephone: 404111 Ministry of Interior PO Box 2433 Telephone: 330000 Ministry of Public Health PO Box 42 Telephone: 441555 Ministry of Finance, Economy...

Saudi Arabia Govt.: National

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy. Its official name is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Its constitution is the Holy Quran and the Muslim law, Shari'a, which is based on the Holy Qur'an. The Basic System of Government states: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is...

Law in Saudi Arabia

As Saudi Arabia is an Islamic state, all law is based on the Holy Quran. It is called Sharia law and governs both criminal and civil cases. The Quran itself is considered the constitution of the country and provides ethical values and guidance....

Administrative Divisions in Saudi Arabia

The Kingdom is divided into 14 regions known as provinces, governorates or emirates. The Saudis themselves call them emirates. Emirate Capital of the Emirate Riyadh Riyadh, which is also the capital of the country...

Ministries in Saudi Arabia

Ministries Ministry Phone Fax Telex Agriculture & Water +966 1 401-6666 +966 1 403-1415 Commerce +966 1 401-2220 / 4708 +966 1 403-8421 Communications +966 1 404-2928 / 3000 +966 1 403-1401 Defense & Aviation +966 1 478-5900 / 477-...

Autonomous Agencies in Saudi Arabia

Agency Phone Fax Tlx Central Department of Statistics +966 1 405-9638 / 401-4528 +966 1 405-9493   Customs Department +966 1 401-3334 / 404-3400 +966 1 404-3412...

Somalia Govt.: The Pre-War Electorate

The overthrow of President Muhammad Siad Barre in January 1991 and the subsequent anarchy have left Somalia in a state of civil war with no clear central authority. Previously, under an amended 1979 constitution, executive power was held by a...

Somalia Govt. : The Refugee Problem

The drought of 1974-75 brought a huge influx of refugees from Ogaden, Ethiopia. Most of these were nomads and needed to adjust to new Somali conditions of resettlement. The government ran three large refugee centres in the south. Despite attempts...

Somalia Govt.: Health

There has been a long tradition of free hospital and medical care in Somalia, but in the late 1980s some half a million refugees from the Ogaden region of Ethiopia strained the welfare resources of the country. This became much worse in the early...

Somalia Govt.: Defence

Compulsory military service for 18 months for men between the ages of 18 and 40 was in force until the early 1990s. In the late 1980s the army had a force of some 61,300; the navy, 1,200; and the air force, 2,500. Since the overthrow of Muhammad...

Education in Somalia

Education up to the civil war of 1990 was free and compulsory. A comprehensive government programme was able to raise the literacy rate from about 5% in 1970 to 60% in the mid-1980s. At this time, elementary schools numbered nearly 300,000 pupils...

Syria Government

The Syrian government is headed by President Bahsar al-Assad, leader of the Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party. The President has the power to appoint ministers of his own choice, which form the executive branch of the government. The legislative branch...

Tunisia Govt.: National

Tunisia is a republic with a president who is the chief executive of the country and has considerable powers over the cabinet, prime minister, and armed forces. The executive cabinet is appointed by the president and reports to a single 141-member,...

Tunisia Govt.: Regional

There are 23 governorates who have regional political representation to higher levels of central government.

Tunisia Govt.: Foreign Policy

Tunisia has consistently been pursuing a balanced policy of openness and moderation is its international relations. It has consistently sought to promote a comprehensive and peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict, which ensure a just and...

Tunisia Govt.: Social Services

Since 1950 Tunisia has operated a social security system which provides free health care, and maternity and old-age benefits.

Yemen Govt. Introduction and History

North and South Yemen were united in 1990, ending a three-century separation. In ancient times the territory of Yemen was part of the trade empire of the Minaean Kingdom and later the Kingdom of Sheba. The area was a crucial link between Africa and...