Geography of Bahrain

Oman Geography - Introduction

The Sultanate of Oman is an independent country in the southeastern quarter of the Arabian peninsula. It is bordered by the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea. Its land borders are with the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Located in the...

Climate of Oman

Oman is hot and dry with temperatures from 18°C to 34°C (64°F to 93°F). The average rainfall in the country ranges from 76 to 102mm (3 to 4in) annually. However, there are climactic variations: in the south along the coast, coconuts are grown while...

Map of Oman

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom.

Oman - Population

The population of the sultanate is almost entirely Arab with the exception of some 300,000 expatriate workers, mainly Indian and Pakistani, who comprise about half the salaried work force. The most populous cities are Muscat and Matra.

Oman - Topography

Oman's coastline is more than 2100km long (1300 mi) with a coastal plain up to 19km wide (12 mi). The coastal plain blends into an area of hills which in turn gives way to a plateau with an average altitude of 305m (1000ft). The hills are mostly...

Flora & fauna of Oman

Despite its arid nature, Oman is home to various types of plants and of plants and animals. Shrubs, grasses, hardy trees like the acacia grow naturally. Grapes and apricots are grown on the slopes of Al Jabal al Akhdar; coconut palms are also grown...

Geography of Egypt - Introduction

Egypt covers an area of approximately 1,001,450 sq km (386,662 sq mi) in northeastern Africa, its northern coastline along the Mediterranean Sea, its eastern coastline along the Red Sea and touching the State of Israel in the Sinai. Libya shares its...

Climate of Egypt

Throughout most of the year, most of Egypt is hot and dry. Alexandria and the Mediterranean coastal communities experience milder weather while the heat in Cairo and other inland areas is fierce with temperatures rising to as high as 50°C in some...

The Nile

It is the Nile -- the Father of Rivers -- that, more than any other feature of the country, characterizes Egypt. The Nile emanates from the Ethiopia, flowing north through the country for 1,545km (960mi), emptying into the Mediterranean Sea and all...

Natural resources of Egypt

Egypt's most valuable mineral resource is oil, although the country also has gold deposits as well as iron ore, manganese, phosphates and uranium.

Egypt - Flora

Although the lotus and papyrus are symbols of Egypt, it is the date palm that dominates the landscape. The Nile Delta and the Nile River Valley have a rich variety of trees -- some indigenous, some imported -- including the tamarisk, acacia,...

Egypt - Fauna

Camels (pictured), buffalo and donkeys are the most prevalent animals to be found in Egypt. As for desert wildlife, the gazelle, jackal, jerboa and desert fox are indigenous to the country, as well as lizards and several venomous snakes. Egypt is...

Geography of Algeria - Introduction

Algeria is the largest of the three countries (including Morocco and Tunisia) which form the region of western North Africa known traditionally as Al Maghrib ("the West"). It is also the second largest country in Africa and the tenth largest country...

Climate of Algeria

The northern Tell region has a temperate Mediterranean climate, with warm summers averaging 25°C (77°F) and rainy winters averaging 11°C (52°F). A hot, dry sirocco wind blowing north from the Sahara during the summer season, brings blinding sand and...

Population of Algeria

31,193,917 (estimation of July 2000) Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 5,591,044; female 5,389,046) 15-64 years: 61% (male 9,582,864; female 9,381,088) 65 years and over: 4% (male 577,875; female 672,000) (estimation of 2000) Population growth...

Topography of Algeria

The country is characterized by four distinct parallel geographical regions running east to west: The Tell region is the northern band of terrain extending along the country's northern coastal area, between 80 and 190km (50-120 miles) wide. This...

Flora and Fauna of Algeria

Deforestation has been extensive in northern Algeria, with forests receding to the upper Tell Atlas and the Saharan Atlas. Pine, cedar and several oak species, including cork oak, are the main trees found in what is left of Algeria's forests....

Topography of Comoros

The Comoros is an archipelago consisting of a group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique. The islands are of volcanic origin and are mountainous. The highest point on...

Climate of Comoros

The Comoros climate is tropical with a monsoom season from November to April. The range of annual rainfall is from 109 to 551 cm (43 to 217 in); there are frequent cyclones.

Comoros Geography: Demographics

The people of the islands are of mixed descent: African, Arab and Malagasy. Although Arabic and French are the official languages, the primary spoken tongue is the Comorian dialect of Swahili. The great majority of the people, except on Mahoré (...

Flora & Fauna of Comoros

The Comoros' land is mostly desert and the only green area is found in the basalt ranges of the northern region. Agriculture is confined to oases and to a few spots along the coast; it satisfies only 25 per cent of the domestic food demand....

Geography of Djibouti: Topography

Virtually all of Djibouti (90%) is a volcanic desert. There are minor mountain ranges from the coastal plain to the Ethiopian highlands, where the highest point in the country (Mount Moussa, 2063m or 6768 ft) is located. The coastline is some 800 km...

Climate of Djibouti

Djibouti's climate is in general hot and humid; it is one of the hottest countries in the world. The annual average temperature is about 32úC (90úF), with the November to March temperature averaging 20úC and the temperature in July averaging 41úC (...

Demography of Djibouti

The people of the republic are roughly divided into two groups: the Afars of the north, and the Issas of the south. Both are Muslim, and by tradition both are pastoral nomads who roam with their flocks, taking no notice of political boundaries....

Location of Iraq

Iraq is situated at the northern tip of the Arabian Gulf. Its coastline along the gulf is only 30 km (19 mi.) long. Its only port on the gulf, Umm Qasr, is small and located on shallow water and only small craft can dock there. Iraq is situated in...

Map of Iraq

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Iraq

Iraq has four distinct geographic regions. The northeastern, mountainous region is known as al-Jazira, rising to nearly 2135m (7000 feet) near the Turkish border. Iraq's two highest points are ::I, which rises to 3600m (11,811 feet) and Mount ::I(3...

Flora & Fauna in Iraq

Vegetation is fairly sparse throughout Iraq, chiefly due to the high saline content of the soil in many places. Cultivated trees include the date palm and the poplar. Fauna include the antelope, bat, cheetah, hare, hyena, gazelle, jackal, jerboa,...

Natural Resources in Iraq

The natural resources of Iraq are primarily mineral; the country is well rich with petroleum and natural gas. It has also large quantities of water, supplied by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Along and between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers are...

Climate of Iraq

Iraq's mainly continental climate brings a wide range of temperature, with hot summers, particularly in the south, and cold winters, especially on the higher ground. In the mountainous region of the north, summers can be a little cooler and...

Geography of Jordan: Introduction

Jordan is situated in south-western Asia and is bounded on the north by Syria, on the south by Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Aqaba, on the east by Iraq and on the west by the occupied West Bank. The lands west of the Jordan River were originally...

Map of Jordan

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Geography of Jordan: Topography

Jordan's main topographical feature is a dry plateau running from north to south. This rises steeply from the eastern shores of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, reaching a height of between 610 and 915 metres (about 2-3,000ft). This plateau area...

Climate of Jordan

Jordan is part of the eastern Mediterranean weather system and boasts one of the world's most pleasant climates. There are marked seasonal contrasts, however. Summers are dry and warm-to-hot and winters are wet and cool-to-cold, with occasional snow...

Natural Resources and Environment of Jordan

Jordan is a small Arab country with inadequate supplies of water and few mineral and other natural resources significant for commercial use. 75 per cent of the country is a desert plateau. The western part of this plateau has a series of cleavages...

Flora in Jordan

Plant life is not abundant in Jordan, as much of the region consists of steppe or desert. Wooded areas and grasslands are to be found principally in the hills to the west of the River Jordan and in the area between Amman and the Syrian border. Trees...

Fauna in Jordan

Animal life includes the badger, boar, fox, ibex, hyena, hyrax, mongoose, partridge, mole rat, oryx and gazelle. The desert regions are home to the camel (pictured), sand rat, desert fox, hare and jerboa (a small rodent).

Kuwait Geography: Introduction

Kuwait is an oil-rich Arab country with an area of 17,818 sq km situated at the north-western tip of the Arabian Gulf. Its territorial waters include nine islands and a 290-km long coastline. The country is bordered on the north and west by Iraq, on...

Map of Kuwait

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Kuwait Geography: Topography

Kuwait is, for all practical purposes, a flat desert. Its highest point is a hill which is only about 300m high (1000ft). There are nine off-shore islands but only one of them, Failaka, is inhabited. Most of the land area of the country is below...

Kuwait Geography: Climate

Kuwait enjoys a variable continental climate with considerable differences in temperature. The average daily temperature is 33°C (90°F). Summer months are between May and October when the temperature is high, but humidity is less compared with...

Flora of Kuwait

Although Kuwait is an oil-producing country with arid soil, no rivers, scarce water, and harsh weather, it managed to cultivate and produce good crops, which in particular periods of the year exceeds the local needs and tey are exported to various...

Fauna of Kuwait

Before the Gulf War, many reptile species were found in Kuwait: various lizards, house geckoes and naturally snakes. Representing mammals were gerbils, jerboas, desert hares and foxes. Insects were abundant including crickets, dragonflies, sometimes...

Geography of Lebabon: Introduction

Lebanon is located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. The country is 215km long, and from east to west the distance ranges from 25 to 90km. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east, and by Israel to the south. Lebanon has made a...

Map of Lebanon

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Geography of Lebanon: Topography

There are four main geographical regions running north to south parallel to the Mediterranean -- the coastal plain, the Lebanon mountain range, the Bekaa Valley and the Anti-Lebanon range. The narrow fertile coastal plain broken at several points...

Climate and Environment of Lebanon

Lebanon has a fertile coastal plain, where most of the population lives, with a mild Mediterranean climate making it rainy in the winter. The soil is very fertile because of rich alluvial deposits. Along the coast, a dry bush known as maquis grows,...

Flora of Lebanon

Most of Lebanon has been deforested. The great cedar forests have largely disappeared except in the higher mountains. A Mediterranean brush vegetation is found in most areas.

Fauna of Lebanon

Indiscriminate hunting has greatly reduced the once-rich bird and animal population. A few species of wild animals survive including jackal, wolf, wild ass and gazelle.

Topography of Libya

Libya is situated in northern Africa, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Egypt lies to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, Nigeria to the west and Tunisia to the northwest. Libya is one of Africa's largest...

Geography of Libya: Desert Oases and the Water Supply

In Libya's desert region, the three largest oases are Al-Kufrah, Ghat and Ghudamis. Here, underground water resources are tapped by means of shallow wells. Wadi Ki'am is Libya's only permanently-flowing river, and is only about 2km in length,...

Geography of Libya: Climate

The coastal region has a Mediterranean climate, with average temperatures in Tripoli ranging from 30°C (86°F) in summer to 8°C (46°F). Rainfall is mostly during the winter months and averages 380mm (15 inches) annually. Coastal towns can be humid,...

Flora & Fauna of Libya

Libyan vegetation is mostly extremely sparse, particularly in the desert areas. Oases support the growth of date palms, olive trees and orange trees, and the Jabal Nafusah Plateau is covered with shrubs such as asphodel and wild pistachio. Other...

Topography of Mauritania

Mauritania's southern boundary is Senegal. It joins Mali on the southeast and east, and Algeria forms its northeastern border. The country's Atlantic coastline runs for some 700km. Its northwestern border is the disputed territory known as the...

Climate of Mauritania

Most of Mauritania has a Saharan climate, being hot and windy with little or absolutely no rain. The strong desert winds appear in March and April. However, the coastal area has a milder climate, being relieved by pleasant sea-breezes. Daytime...

Geography of Mauritania: Resources

High-grade iron-ore deposits at Fderik, in the Sahara, constitute the country's principal resource. Copper is found at Akjoujt. The coastal waters abound in fish. With the exception of a narrow strip in the south along the Senegal River, the...

Geography of Morocco: Introduction

Morocco occupies an area of approximately 446,550 sq km (172,413 sq mi) in the northwestern corner of the African continent. The Atlantic Ocean forms the country's western perimeter. The north is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea. To the east and...

Map of Morocco

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Morocco

Morocco has four distinct geographic regions: The Rif mountains in the north which rise as high as 2,440m (8,000ft), parallel the Mediterranean coast. The Atlas Mountains extend across the country southwest to northeast between the Atlantic Ocean...

Climate of Morocco

The Moroccan coastal climate is moderate and subtropical, cooled by the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. The average temperature hovers at around 20°C. In the interior the temperatures are more extreme -- winters can be quite cold and the...

Natural Resources in Morocco

Morocco is still chiefly an agrarian society but mineral resources, including phosphates, iron, lead, manganese, silver, tin, zinc, coal and petroleum are also mined.

Flora of Morocco

The mountainous regions of Morocco contain extensive areas of forest, including large stands of cork oak, evergreen oak, juniper, cedar, fir, and pine. Except for areas under cultivation, the plains are usually covered with scrub brush and alfa...

Fauna of Morocco

Morocco has a rich diversity of wildlife including gazelle, wild boar, panther, wild goat, baboon, fox, rabbit, otter, squirrel and horned viper. Moroccan wildlife represents a mingling of European and African species. Of the animals characteristic...

History of Palestine: The Jordan River

The Jordan River (Arabic: Nahar al-Urdunn) is 359km (223 miles) long and flows from Mount Hermon to the Dead Sea. It drains an area of 16,000 sq km (6000 sq mi) and flows along the western side of the Golan Heights to the Sea of Galilee (Lake...

Topography of Palestine

Palestine is a country containing a variety of topographical features. It is easily divided into four distinct regions. Moving from the Mediterranean Sea to the east -- in other words from west to east -- one first encounters the coastal plain, then...

Geography of Qatar: Location

The State of Qatar is situated half-way along the west coast of the Arabian Gulf, east of the Arabian peninsula. It is itself a peninsula that extends northward covering an area of 11,437 sq km. Its territory includes a number of islands in the...

Map of Qatar

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Qatar

Qatar generally consists of flat rocky surfaces. It does, however, include some hills and sand dunes which reach an altitude of 40m above sea level in the western and northern parts of the country. Qatar is characterized by a number of geographical...

Geography of Qatar: Climate

The State of Qatar has a desert climate with a hot summer and a relatively mild winter. In the summer the temperature ranges between 25°C and 45°C with high humidity. There is some rainfall in winter but on the average does not exceed 75.2mm...

Population of Qatar

The people of Qatar are primarily of Arab descent, reflecting the country's close proximity to the Arabian peninsula and its ties of history, language and religion with the other Gulf states. Arab tribes who migrated to the area in the 18th century...

Geography of Saudi Arabia: Introduction

Occupying four-fifths of the Arabian peninsula, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East. In south-western Asia, the country is at the crossroads of three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. On the west it is bordered...

Map of Saudi Arabia

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Climate of Saudi Arabia

The climate of Saudi Arabia varies from one province to another. The Kingdom lies in the tropics, and the nationwide average temperature is 18°C (64°F). Local average vary considerably from 24°C (75°F) in the Western Province, rising as we descend...

Geography of Saudi Arabia: The Arabian Oryx

The Arabian oryx is a medium-sized, white antelope, with black patches on its face, and dark legs. It stands about one metre high and has two gently curving horns, which are about 50cm in length. Its grace and beauty are legendary. Before the...

Geography of Sudan: Introduction

The name of the country comes from the bilad assudan (land of the blacks). Arabic is the official language in the country and Islam is the official religion of the state. However, there is a large non-Muslim and non-Arabic speaking population. The...

Map of Sudan

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Sudan

Situated in the northeastern corner of the African continent, the Sudan is divided into three distinct geographical regions. The northern area, comprising about 30% of the country, consists of barren desert plains, the stony Nubian desert lying to...

Climate of Sudan

Considerable regional differences occur in Sudan's climate. In the northern desert areas, the weather is hot and dry, with almost no rainfall, and temperatures reach a maximum of 43.3 degrees C (110 degrees F). Lowest temperatures in winter can be...

Flora & Fauna of Sudan

Vegetation is extremely sparse in the northern desert areas, with most of the substantial forests to be found in central and southern regions. Savannah-type elephant grass covers much of the central steppe region. The river valleys are home to a...

Topography of Somalia

Somalia is bounded on the north by the Gulf of Aden and to the east and south lies the Indian Ocean. It is then bounded on the west by Ethiopia, on the southwest by Kenya and on the northwest by Djibouti. The northern zone of desert plains rises up...

Climate of Somalia

The country is hot and humid, with the summer months falling between June and September. The monsoon winds bring a dry season from September to December and a rainy season from March to May. The northern highlands are generally cooler and the south...

Flora and Fauna in Somalia

Vegetation in Somalia consists chiefly of coarse grass, thorn bushes and acacia trees, which can tolerate the harsh climate. Trees producing the resins frankincense and myrrh are indigenous to Somalia, and are found on the northern mountain slopes...

Natural Resources in Somalia

There are not many natural resources in Somalia. The grasslands are suitable for grazing livestock. Some crops are grown on the fertile land in the Juba and Shebeli valleys -- about 15% of the land is considered arable. It is generally believed...

Somalia: Demographics

The Somalis, a Cushitic people, share the same language, religion and culture but are divided into groups by a deeply ingrained clan structure, such as the Dir, Iqsaq and Digil. Somalis share many cultural traits, such as the same language, the...

Geography of Syria: Introduction

Syria is bordered on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iraq, on the south by Jordan and on the west by Lebanon and the Mediterranean. Syria is bounded on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iraq, on the south by Jordan and Palestine, and on the...

Map of Syria

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Syria

Syria has four main geographical regions. A narrow, fertile coastal plain, about 20 miles in width runs down the western side of the country. Parallel to this is narrow mountain range, known as Jebel an-Nusayriyah and south of these are the Anti-...

Climate of Syria

The most hospitable and pleasant climate in Syria is to be found near the coast. Here, Mediterranean conditions give hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters, with average daily temperatures of 29°C in summer and 10°C in winter. Annual rainfall along...

Flora in Syria

Wild grasses and shrubs such as tamarisk and buckthorn grow along the coastal strip and the Anti-Lebanon mountains contain forests of Aleppo pine and Syrian oak. Much of Syria's arable areas have been stripped of their natural vegetation.

Fauna in Syria

Mammals native to Syria include the antelope, gazelle, wildcat, deer, squirrel, hare and porcupine. Bird life consists of the pelican, flamingo, ostrich, bustard, falcon and eagle. The desert areas support the chameleon and various lizards.

Geography of Tunisia: Introduction

Equal in size to that of England and Wales, Tunisia is the northernmost African state and the smallest of the four countries in North Africa that make up the Maghreb. It shares a border with Algeria in the west and Libya in the southeast. To the...

Map of Tunisia

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Tunisia

The country has three distinct physical regions: Northern Tunisia, Central Tunisia, and Southern Tunisia. In the north the Atlas mountains form the Northern Tell and High Tell ranges. They are separated by the wide fertile Medjerda valley, a major...

Climate of Tunisia

There are considerable differences between the climate in the north and south of Tunisia. The north's climate is typically Mediterranean, with hot dry summers and mild wet winters. In the south, the proximity to the Sahara increases the aridity of...

Geography of of United Arab Emirates (UAE): Introduction

United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven independent states located in the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the Arabian Gulf to the north, Saudi Arabia to the south and west, and the Sultanate of Oman and...

Map of United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of UAE

In the south and west of the country, the land is mainly sand dunes and salt flats with the occasional traditional desert oasis. The largest oases are at Al Ain, 160km east of Abu Dhabi, and the Liwa in the southwest. In the northern part of the...

Climate of UAE

The climate is hot and dry. The mean January temperature is 18°C (65°F.) and the mean temperature in July is 33°C (92°F). The average annual rainfall is 152mm (6in). The major natural resource is petroleum. Temperatures from May to September are...

Environment of UAE

To a casual observer, the environment of the UAE may seem so forbidding that there is little to study and less to conserve. The reverse, however, is the case. Precisely because of its forbidding environment, great care must be taken to preserve it,...

Geography of United Arab Emirates (UAE): Birds Life

Lying near the junction of three of the world's zoological zones, the UAE provides a stopover for thousands of species of birds on their annual migrations from north to south. Studies over the past two decades have shown that the variety of bird-...

Geography of United Arab Emirates (UAE): Conservation

The government of the United Arab Emirates established the Federal Environmental Agency in 1992. Its role is one of coordination, preparing legislation on environmental topics and encouraging communication on environmental matters between the...

Introduction of Yemen

The Republic of Yemen is located in the southern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, the southwestern part of Asia. Saudi Arabia borders it in the north, the Arab Sea and the Indian Ocean in the south, the Sultanate of Oman in the east, and the Red Sea...

Map of Yemen

Map developed from original digital cartography by Digital Wisdom. Artwork may only be used with permission from Digital Wisdom and ArabNet.

Topography of Yemen

Yemen has a coastline of about 450km and its coastal plain ,averaging 48km in width, is a region of semi-desert. The vast mountain range of the southern Arabian Peninsula runs through the Yemen, with its highest peak, Hadur Shu'ayb at 3,760 metres...

Climate of Yemen

The weather in Yemen changes from area to area according to the changing geographical patterns. The four seasons, however, overlap to appear as if they were two, summer, and winter. The summer spans the period from April to September. Summer is...