History of Yemen: Separate States and Unification

In the late 1960s, British presence in southern Yemen was minimal outside Aden itself. Intense guerrilla fighting throughout the mid-sixties resulted in a British withdrawal from Aden in 1967. With the closure of the Suez Canal, the Yemen's economy was on the verge of collapse, and the new People's Republic of South Yemen, which came into being on

History of Yemen: Civil war

Imam Yayha ruled the Yemen until his assassination in 1948, and was succeeded by his son Ahmad (1896-1962). Clashes with the British over Aden were characteristic of Ahmad's rule, and he sought protection from Cairo, resulting in a short-lived pact between Yemen, Egypt and Syria. On his father's death in 1962, Ahmad's son, Muhammed al-Badr, ruled

History of Yemen: British and Turkish Domination

The British conquered Aden in 1839 and it was then known as the Aden Protectorate. The British also made a series of treaties with local tribal rulers, in a move to colonise the entire area of southern Yemen. British influence extended to Hadhramawt by the 1950s and a boundary line, known as the "violet line" was drawn between Turkish Arabia in

History of Yemen: Islam, Christianity, Judaism and The Dynasties

While Yemen was under the rule of the Roans on the shores of the Mediterranean, Christianity was fast establishing itself and ritual fragrances became less popular, causing a considerable decline in the spice trade. Both Christianity and Judaism were introduced into Yemen by the 4th century AD. In the early part of this century Ethiopians

History of Yemen: Ancient Civilisations

The history of Yemen stretches back over 3,000 years, and its unique culture is still in evidence today in the architecture of its towns and villages. From about 1000 BC this region of the Southern Arabian Peninsula was ruled by three successive civilisations -- Minean, Sabaean and Himyarite. These three kingdoms all depended for their wealth on

History of United Arab Emirates: Independence

The United Arab Emirates became fully independent on 2 December 1971, although Ras al-Khaimah did not join until 1972. From that time, it has attracted attention -- first because of its oil reserves and its strategic location but now in addition to those, because of its programme of economic and social development. In the last quarter of the

History of United Arab Emirates: British Influence

In the early 19th century, the area that is now the UAE was known as the "Pirate Coast" because of the occupation of its inhabitants. Beginning in 1820, Great Britain entered into treaties with various leaders in the area out of a desire to protect its ships in the Gulf and the Indian Ocean. In addition, Britain was allowed to handle foreign

History of Tunisia: Political Change

Tunisia strengthened its ties with the Arab world during the mid-sixties, and relations with both Algeria and Morocco improved dramatically. Meanwhile, France withdrawal of all financial aid from Tunisia, resulted in serious economic problems. In 1964, the former Neo-Destour Party became known as the Parti Socialiste Destourien (Destourian

History of Tunisia: French Withdrawal and National Autonomy

The first Tunisian elections took place in April 1956 and the Tunisian statesman Habib Bourguiba was elected President of the first National Assembly. Bourguiba had previously been head of the national liberation movement, Neo-Destour. Tunisia became a member of the United Nations in November 1956. During the following year, the bey was finally

History of Tunisia: French Colonisation

The demise of piracy and the resulting loss of revenue plunged the region into economic chaos. France, Italy and Great Britain all sought to realise their imperialistic ambitions in Tunisia, and in 1881, France wielded the upper hand in the signing of the Bardo Treaty (Treaty of Kasser Said), which acknowledged Tunisia as a French protectorate.

History of Tunisia: Turkish Rule and Piracy

In 1574, Ottoman armies defeated the Spanish, and Tunisia became part of the Ottoman Empire. A period of peace and stability followed, with Turkish imperial rule effected through local governors, known first as deys and later as beys. The first of these, al-Husayn ibn Ali (ruled 1705-1740) founded the Husaynid dynasty and established considerable

History of Tunisia: The Vandals and Islam

By the 5th century AD, the power of Rome was weakening and the province known as Africa fell to a Teutonic tribe, the Vandals, in about AD430. The Vandals ruled for a century before Rome, under Belisarius, re-captured it in about AD534. Arab invaders conquered the region in the 7th century AD, and the former Romano-Christian culture was replaced

History of Tunisia: Carthaginians and Romans

In ancient times Tunisia was part of the mighty Carthaginian Empire. Its chief city, Carthage, was reputedly founded in 814BC by Phoenician traders, who had previously established several small trading posts along the North African coast. The site of Carthage, which became the largest and most famous of these Phoenician settlements, is thought to

History of Syria: The Republic

The postwar period was characterized for serious political instability. In 1944 a “Greater Syria” movement had been launched to establish a "Syrian Arab" state that would include Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine. Many Syrian opponents of the movement feared the absorption of Syria into a larger Arab state a subsequent loss of Syrian national

History of Syria: The Islamic & Ottoman Empires

In 636A.D. Syria was again conquered, this time by the Arabs, and became part of the fast-growing Islamic Empire. Damascus became the capital of the Umayyad dynastic empire, when it was the seat of several powerful Umayyad caliphs. Rule by another Muslim dynasty, the Abbasids, followed. By the end of the 11th century, the Crusaders had arrived in