History of Saudi Arabia: King Abdul Aziz

History of Saudi Arabia: King Abdul Aziz Last updated on Saturday 24th April 2010

When King Abdul Aziz and Sixty men headed for Riuadh in June 1901, his sole motive was to restore the purity and primacy of Islam rather than any worldly gain. He was inspired by the history of his ancestors and spared no efforts I his stgruggle to regain his ancestors rule. The story fo his recapute of Riyadh is well-know. It was in fact the point of departure from which he began his campaign. His battles and conquests were many including the recapture of Jeddah and Madinah. He spent 31 years in continuous struggle from the time he left Riyadh until he succeeded in reuniting the Kingdom under the system of Tawheed (monotheism).

The history of modern Saudi Arabia begins in the year 1902 when Abdul Aziz Al-Sa'ud and a band of his followers captured the city of Riyadh, returning it to the control of his family.

Abdul Aziz was born about 1880 and spent the early years of his life with his father in exile in Kuwait. After the capture of Riyadh, he spent the next twelve years consolidating his conquests in the area around Riyadh and the eastern part of the country from where the Turks were expelled.

The Arab tribes had never liked the Turks and they were only too willing to listen to a new ruler whose ambitions were aided considerably by the troubles of the Ottoman Empire.

On the 2nd of September 1933, the lands under the control of Abdul Aziz were renamed the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in 1936 a treaty was signed with Yemen marking the southern borders of the Kingdom.

The main preoccupations of Abdul Aziz were the consolidation of his power and the restoration of law and order to all parts of his recently created kingdom. To these ends, he developed a system whereby every Sheikh was responsible for his own tribe under the authority of the king who was empowered to intervene to impose law and order. It was clearly understood that internal anarchy within the Kingdom could quickly lead to foreign intervention. And all were agreed that this was unacceptable.

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